Carbon Neutral 2021 to 2030

In conjuction with our ‘Hague Forest’ tree planting scheme, Hague Fasteners are proud to re-affirm that we are a Carbon Neutral and Carbon Negative Company.

Hague Fasteners Carbon Neutral

Hague have invested into the United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change Project under CDM Project 2535: CUIDEMOS Mexico (Campana De Uso Intelegente De Energia Mexico) – Smart Use of Energy Mexico, to retire Carbon Credits which sees us offset our Carbon Footprint from 2021 and then retired through to and including 2030.

With the addition of our ongoing tree planting scheme we are ensuring that we have a positive impact on the environment, removing more carbon from the atmosphere than we create through our operation whilst supporting economic and environmental projects and development in Nepal, Kenya, Honduras, Madagascar & The Philippines.

Further Reading:-

Hague Fateners Carbon Footprint

Hague Fasteners Tree Planting – HagueForest

UNITED NATIONS Clean Development Mechanism CDM

Boldmere FC Juniors Grassroots Football Sponsorship

Hague Fasteners Announces 2-Year Sponsorship of Boldmere FC Juniors, Led by Former Premier League Star Karl Henry

In a remarkable move to support grassroots football, Hague Fasteners, a leading manufacturer of industrial fasteners, has proudly announced its two-year sponsorship of Boldmere FC Juniors. This exciting partnership aims to strengthen the local community and provide invaluable opportunities for aspiring young footballers. The youth team is under the expert guidance of retired Premier League Wolverhampton Wanderers midfielder, Karl Henry.

Karl Henry – Hague Fasteners Kit Sponsor

Under the leadership of Karl Henry, the former Wolverhampton Wanderers star who enjoyed a successful career in the Premier League, Boldmere FC Juniors has become a renowned breeding ground for young talent. Henry’s experience and dedication to nurturing young players have earned him immense respect within the footballing community.

Boldmere FC Juniors has a rich history dating back to its establishment in 1978. The club, based in Boldmere, Sutton Coldfield, has consistently promoted the development of young talent and has gained a reputation for producing skilled players who have gone on to achieve success at higher levels of the game.

Hague Fasteners, known for their commitment to supporting local initiatives, recognizes the immense potential within the Boldmere FC Juniors setup. The two-year sponsorship deal will provide the necessary resources for the club to enhance its facilities, coaching staff, and player development programs. This investment will create a positive and inclusive environment for young footballers to thrive and fulfill their potential.

The collaboration between Hague Fasteners and Boldmere FC Juniors is already generating excitement within the local community. To celebrate the partnership, the club’s official Facebook page, “Boldmere St Michaels Juniors,” has been buzzing with social media posts sharing updates and glimpses into the team’s activities.

The Facebook page serves as a central hub for supporters and parents to stay informed about the club’s progress, upcoming fixtures, and achievements of its talented players. Additionally, it provides a platform for the community to engage with the club, fostering a sense of unity and support.

Hague Fasteners urges fans, parents, and local businesses to follow Boldmere St Michaels Juniors on Facebook and engage with the club’s social media presence to stay connected and share in the excitement of this promising partnership.

With the sponsorship from Hague Fasteners, Boldmere FC Juniors is poised to make significant strides in developing young football talent and achieving their ambitions on and off the pitch. The investment will enable the club to provide top-notch coaching, improve facilities, and nurture the next generation of football stars.

This collaboration between Hague Fasteners and Boldmere FC Juniors, under the guidance of Karl Henry, is a testament to the shared belief in the power of football to positively impact young lives and strengthen local communities. The future looks bright for Boldmere FC Juniors, as they embark on this exciting new chapter with the support of Hague Fasteners.

Karl Henry & Jon Hague – Football with The Wolves Foundation

Further Information:
Boldmere St Michaels Juniors Facebook Page

Hague Fasteners Facebook Page
Hague Fasteners Official Website

Tree Planting Update

Working with our tree planting partners across the world, we are proud to announce this Tree Planting Update that we have now planted 571 Trees, smashing our annual target, supporting local communities to restore healthy forests and reduce extreme poverty in Madagascar, Kenya and Haiti and aiding Conservation & Water channeling, and supporting Communities & Wildlife, whilst further improving food security and supply.

You can read more about the projects we are commited to at https://moretrees.eco/projects/ and how this Tree Planting Update shows our commitment to improving our World.

In an era of increasing environmental concerns, the importance of carbon sequestration and supporting tree planting initiatives cannot be overstated. In particular, the countries of Madagascar, Haiti, and Kenya hold tremendous significance due to their ecological diversity and vulnerability to climate change. As we navigate the challenges of the 21st century, it is imperative for all companies to recognize their role in environmental responsibility and join forces to protect the world we live in.

As stewards of the environment, companies must embrace their role in promoting sustainability and combating climate change. By supporting carbon sequestration and tree planting initiatives, businesses demonstrate their commitment to a greener future, mitigate their carbon footprint, and inspire others to follow suit. Collaborative efforts between companies, governments, and local communities in Madagascar, Haiti, and Kenya can lead to profound positive changes and pave the way for a more sustainable world.

Madagascar: Preserving Biodiversity, Fighting Climate Change: With its unique flora and fauna, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot facing unprecedented challenges. Deforestation has accelerated, leading to habitat loss and increased carbon emissions. By investing in tree planting initiatives, companies can actively participate in reforestation efforts, restoring critical ecosystems such as the lush rainforests of Ranomafana and the iconic baobab forests. This support will not only help in carbon sequestration but also safeguard countless species from extinction.

Haiti: Reforestation for Resilience: Haiti, known for its rich cultural heritage, is grappling with severe environmental degradation. Rampant deforestation has resulted in soil erosion, increased vulnerability to natural disasters, and diminished livelihoods for local communities. Supporting tree planting initiatives in Haiti can revitalize ecosystems, enhance soil stability, and provide sustainable economic opportunities. Companies can play a pivotal role in reforestation efforts, protecting Haiti’s natural heritage and empowering its people.

Kenya: Greening the Land, Empowering Communities: Kenya, a country celebrated for its stunning landscapes and diverse wildlife, faces numerous environmental challenges, including deforestation and desertification. By engaging in tree planting initiatives, companies can combat desertification, enhance carbon sequestration in expansive forests like the Maasai Mara, and uplift local communities through sustainable agroforestry practices. Investing in Kenya’s environmental future is not only a responsible choice but also an opportunity to promote social and economic well-being.

you can read more about our Carbon Footprint focus & initiatives at https://www.haguefasteners.co.uk/carbon-footprint/ and see realtime Tree Planting Update at our Hague Forest page.

Effects of corrosion on fastener performance and integrity

Corrosion is a formidable and persistent challenge faced by the fastener industry, exerting a detrimental impact on the performance and integrity of fasteners. It occurs as a result of metals coming into contact with moisture, air, and other corrosive elements, initiating a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the breakdown of the metal and the deterioration of the fastener. Understanding the various types of corrosion, their effects on fastener performance, and implementing effective mitigation techniques and preventive measures are crucial for ensuring the longevity and reliability of fasteners in diverse applications.

There exist several distinct types of corrosion that can significantly affect fasteners, each presenting its own unique characteristics and risks:

  1. Uniform corrosion: This form of corrosion manifests as a gradual loss of material, spreading evenly across the entire surface of the fastener. As the material erodes, the strength of the fastener diminishes, posing a potential threat to structural integrity.
  2. Pitting corrosion: Pitting corrosion is characterized by the formation of small pits or holes on the surface of the fastener. These pits can rapidly grow in size, compromising the structural integrity of the fastener and potentially leading to premature failure, even when subjected to relatively low loads.
  3. Galvanic corrosion: Galvanic corrosion arises when two dissimilar metals come into contact with each other in the presence of an electrolyte. This contact creates an electrochemical cell, initiating an electrical current that causes corrosion to occur more rapidly in the less noble metal. The galvanic corrosion process can result in severe material degradation and structural weakness.
  4. Crevice corrosion: Crevice corrosion arises in areas where there is limited access to oxygen or water, such as tight spaces between fasteners or beneath washers. The confined environment hinders proper ventilation and drainage, allowing corrosive elements to accumulate and promote localized corrosion. Crevice corrosion can pose a significant risk, as it often goes unnoticed until substantial damage has already occurred.

The impact of corrosion on fastener performance cannot be overstated. Corrosion weakens the fastener, diminishing its load-bearing capacity and making it susceptible to premature failure under normal or even moderate loads. Furthermore, corrosion can compromise the thread strength of the fastener, rendering it more prone to stripping or shearing. Additionally, the corrosion process can loosen the fastener, resulting in a loss of clamping force and potentially compromising the structural integrity of the assembly.

To combat the adverse effects of corrosion, a range of mitigation techniques and preventive measures are available:

  1. Corrosion-resistant coatings: Applying specialized coatings, such as zinc plating or organic coatings, to the surface of the fastener can provide an effective barrier against corrosive elements. These coatings act as sacrificial layers, sacrificially corroding to protect the underlying fastener material.
  2. Selection of appropriate materials: Opting for fasteners made from materials that inherently possess high corrosion resistance, such as stainless steel or other corrosion-resistant alloys, is an effective preventive measure. These materials exhibit superior resistance to corrosion, ensuring the longevity and reliability of fasteners in challenging environments.
  3. Lubrication: The application of lubricants serves multiple purposes in corrosion prevention. Lubricants not only create a protective barrier between the fastener and corrosive elements but also enhance the tightening torque during installation, thereby improving the clamping force and reducing the likelihood of fastener failure.
  4. Cathodic protection: Cathodic protection involves employing sacrificial anodes made of more reactive metals, such as zinc or aluminium, in close proximity to the fasteners. These sacrificial anodes attract corrosive elements and corrode themselves, thus shielding the fasteners from corrosion by acting as a sacrificial layer.
  5. Inspection and maintenance: Regular inspection and maintenance practices play a vital role in detecting and addressing corrosion-related issues promptly.

Routine inspection and maintenance procedures are essential for identifying early signs of corrosion and preventing its progression. Regular visual inspections can help detect visible signs of corrosion, such as discoloration, pitting, or surface irregularities. Additionally, non-destructive testing techniques, such as ultrasonic testing or magnetic particle inspection, can be employed to assess the internal integrity of fasteners and identify hidden corrosion.

Incorporating preventive measures into maintenance routines is crucial for effective corrosion management. This includes implementing a proactive approach to remove and replace corroded fasteners promptly. Corroded fasteners should be replaced with new ones that are resistant to corrosion, ensuring the continued structural integrity and reliability of the assembly.

Moreover, conducting regular cleaning and maintenance of fasteners is paramount. Removing accumulated dirt, debris, and corrosive contaminants from fastener surfaces reduces the risk of corrosion initiation and progression. It is advisable to utilize appropriate cleaning agents and techniques that are compatible with the fastener material to avoid causing any additional damage.

Education and training on corrosion awareness and prevention should be provided to personnel involved in fastener handling, installation, and maintenance. By raising awareness about the detrimental effects of corrosion and the importance of preventive measures, employees can actively contribute to maintaining the integrity of fasteners throughout their lifecycle.

Collaboration with suppliers and manufacturers is also crucial in mitigating the impact of corrosion on fastener performance. Engaging in a dialogue with suppliers can ensure the procurement of high-quality, corrosion-resistant fasteners that meet the specific requirements of the intended application. Manufacturers can provide guidance on material selection, surface treatments, and coating options that offer enhanced corrosion protection.

In conclusion, corrosion poses significant challenges to the fastener industry, affecting the performance and integrity of fasteners. Understanding the various types of corrosion, their effects, and implementing appropriate mitigation techniques and preventive measures are vital for ensuring the longevity and reliability of fasteners. By employing corrosion-resistant coatings, selecting suitable materials, practicing proper lubrication, utilizing cathodic protection, and conducting regular inspection and maintenance, fastener manufacturers and users can effectively combat the adverse effects of corrosion, ensuring the safe and reliable operation of their products in diverse environments.

Fastener fatigue life and failure analysis in harsh offshore environments

The offshore oil industry operates in some of the harshest environments on earth, with subsea equipment and pipelines subjected to extreme conditions such as high pressure, temperature, and corrosive seawater. Fasteners used in these environments are critical components that hold everything together, and their failure can have serious consequences such as leaks, spills, and equipment damage. This publication focuses on the impact of seawater exposure and cyclic loading on bolt failure in offshore platforms and recommends preventive measures to mitigate this risk.

Fastener fatigue life

Fastener fatigue is a common mode of failure in offshore platforms, where equipment and pipelines are subjected to cyclic loading over long periods. This loading can cause microscopic cracks to form in the fastener material, which can grow and eventually lead to catastrophic failure. Fastener fatigue life is influenced by several factors, including the material properties, the design of the joint, the loading conditions, and the operating environment.

Material properties

The choice of material for fasteners is critical in harsh offshore environments, where seawater exposure and corrosive gases can cause rapid degradation of certain materials. Common materials used for fasteners in offshore platforms include carbon steel, alloy steel, and stainless steel. Carbon steel is the most common material due to its high strength and low cost, but it is also susceptible to corrosion in seawater. Alloy steel and stainless steel are more resistant to corrosion, but they are also more expensive and may not be suitable for all applications.

Design of the joint

The design of the joint can also have a significant impact on fastener fatigue life. Factors such as the size and shape of the fastener, the number of fasteners, and the preload applied to the joint can all affect the fatigue behaviour. For example, joints with too few fasteners or insufficient preload may experience higher stress concentrations and be more prone to fatigue failure.

Loading conditions

The loading conditions that fasteners are subjected to can also impact fatigue life. In offshore platforms, cyclic loading is common due to the continuous movement of the platform caused by waves and wind. The frequency and magnitude of the cyclic loading can vary depending on the location and weather conditions, and can significantly affect the fatigue behaviour of the fasteners.

Operating environment

The operating environment in offshore platforms can also affect fastener fatigue life. Seawater exposure is a major concern, as it can cause corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in certain materials. The presence of corrosive gases such as hydrogen sulphide can also accelerate degradation and increase the risk of failure.

Case study: Impact of seawater exposure and cyclic loading on bolt failure

To illustrate the impact of seawater exposure and cyclic loading on bolt failure in offshore platforms, a case study is presented here. The case study focuses on a subsea pipeline connection in the North Sea, where several bolts failed after only a few years of service.

The pipeline connection consisted of two flanges, each with 12 bolts, that were connected using a bolt tensioning system. The bolts were made of carbon steel and had a diameter of 1 inch. The pipeline was exposed to seawater and subjected to cyclic loading due to the continuous movement of the platform caused by waves and wind.

After a few years of service, several bolts in the connection failed due to fatigue. Failure analysis revealed that the bolts had developed fatigue cracks at the root of the threads, which had grown and eventually led to complete fracture. The cracks were caused by the cyclic loading of the pipeline, which had exceeded the fatigue limit of the bolts.

Further analysis also revealed that the seawater exposure had accelerated the corrosion of the bolts, reducing their strength and contributing to the fatigue failure. The combination of cyclic loading and seawater exposure had therefore significantly reduced the fatigue life of the bolts, leading to premature failure.

Preventive measures

To prevent fastener failure in offshore platforms, several preventive measures can be implemented. These measures include:

  1. Material selection: Choosing the right material for fasteners is critical in offshore platforms. Corrosion-resistant materials such as alloy steel and stainless steel are preferred for applications where seawater exposure is a concern.
  2. Coatings: Applying coatings such as zinc, cadmium, or other anti-corrosion coatings can help protect fasteners from the corrosive effects of seawater. However, the coating must be carefully selected based on the specific application and environmental conditions.
  3. Preload: Properly tightening fasteners to the recommended preload can help distribute the load evenly and reduce stress concentrations. This can help prevent fatigue cracks from forming and improve the fatigue life of the joint.
  4. Inspection: Regular inspection of fasteners can help detect early signs of corrosion, cracking, or other defects. This can help identify potential problems before they become serious and allow for preventive measures to be implemented.
  5. Maintenance: Proper maintenance of offshore equipment and pipelines is critical to preventing fastener failure. Regular cleaning and inspection can help reduce the impact of seawater exposure and ensure that fasteners are functioning properly.

Conclusion

Fastener fatigue life and failure analysis are critical issues in offshore platforms, where equipment and pipelines are subjected to extreme conditions such as seawater exposure and cyclic loading. The case study presented here illustrates the impact of these factors on bolt failure and highlights the importance of preventive measures to mitigate the risk.

Proper material selection, coatings, preload, inspection, and maintenance can all help improve the fatigue life of fasteners and prevent premature failure. By implementing these measures, offshore operators can reduce the risk of equipment damage, spills, and environmental damage, and ensure the safe and reliable operation of their assets.

Duplex and SuperDuplex Material Study

Duplex and superduplex steels are advanced materials that offer superior mechanical, corrosion, and erosion resistance properties over conventional stainless steels. These alloys have a two-phase microstructure consisting of austenite and ferrite phases, resulting in improved strength, toughness, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking. These properties make duplex and super duplex stainless steels ideal for applications in aggressive environments such as the oil and gas, chemical, and marine industries.

SeprDuplex Offshore Installation

Development of Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steels

Duplex and super duplex stainless steels were developed in the 1930s and 1940s as a result of research into the corrosion resistance of stainless steels in acidic and chloride-containing environments. Early duplex stainless steels were low in nickel and high in chromium and molybdenum to improve their corrosion resistance. However, these alloys had limited toughness and ductility, which made them difficult to fabricate and prone to cracking during welding.

In the 1960s, the development of more advanced duplex stainless steels began, incorporating additional elements such as nitrogen, copper, and tungsten to improve their mechanical properties and welding characteristics. The addition of nitrogen, in particular, increased the strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels, leading to the development of super duplex stainless steels.

Grades of Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steels

  1. Duplex Stainless Steels (UNS S31803, S32205): These grades contain around 22% chromium, 5-6% nickel, and 3% molybdenum. They also have a small amount of nitrogen (0.1-0.2%) to improve their mechanical properties. Duplex stainless steels offer a good combination of strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance, making them suitable for a range of applications in the chemical, petrochemical, and pulp and paper industries.
  2. Super Duplex Stainless Steels (UNS S32750, S32760): Super duplex stainless steels contain around 25% chromium, 7% nickel, and 3.5% molybdenum, as well as 0.3% nitrogen. These alloys have higher strength and corrosion resistance than duplex stainless steels, making them suitable for use in more demanding applications such as offshore oil and gas production, desalination plants, and chemical processing.
  3. Lean Duplex Stainless Steels (UNS S32304): Lean duplex stainless steels contain around 21% chromium, 4.5% nickel, and 0.3% nitrogen. They offer good corrosion resistance and lower cost than other duplex stainless steels, making them suitable for applications in the food processing, wastewater treatment, and architectural industries.
  4. Hyper Duplex Stainless Steels: Hyper duplex stainless steels are a new generation of duplex stainless steels that offer even higher strength and corrosion resistance than super duplex stainless steels. They contain around 27% chromium, 7% nickel, 4% molybdenum, and 0.8% nitrogen. Hyper duplex stainless steels are currently being developed for use in highly corrosive environments such as offshore oil and gas production and chemical processing.

Trademarked Grades

There are several trademarked duplex and superduplex stainless steel grades that have been developed to meet specific application requirements. Some of the most common ones include:

  1. SAF 2205: This is one of the most widely used duplex stainless steel grades. It contains 22% chromium, 5% nickel, and 3% molybdenum, along with other alloying elements such as nitrogen and manganese. SAF 2205 offers excellent corrosion resistance, high strength, and good weldability, making it ideal for use in a range of applications, including oil and gas, chemical processing, and marine environments.
  2. SAF 2507: This is a super duplex stainless steel grade that contains 25% chromium, 7% nickel, and 4% molybdenum, along with other alloying elements such as nitrogen and copper. SAF 2507 offers even higher corrosion resistance and strength than SAF 2205, making it ideal for use in highly corrosive environments such as desalination plants and offshore structures.
  3. Zeron 100: This is another super duplex stainless steel grade that contains 25% chromium, 7% nickel, and 3.5% molybdenum, along with other alloying elements such as nitrogen and tungsten. Zeron 100 offers excellent corrosion resistance, high strength, and good weldability, making it ideal for use in a range of applications, including oil and gas, chemical processing, and marine environments.
  4. Ferralium 255: This is a super duplex stainless steel grade that contains 25% chromium, 7% nickel, and 3.5% molybdenum, along with other alloying elements such as nitrogen and copper. Ferralium 255 offers even higher corrosion resistance and strength than SAF 2507, making it ideal for use in highly corrosive environments such as desalination plants and offshore structures.
  5. LDX 2101: This is a lean duplex stainless steel grade that contains 21% chromium, 1.5% nickel, and 0.3% molybdenum, along with other alloying elements such as nitrogen and manganese. LDX 2101 offers good corrosion resistance and high strength, making it ideal for use in a range of applications, including chemical processing and marine environments.

Each of these duplex and super duplex stainless steel grades has been developed to meet specific application requirements. For example, SAF 2205 and Zeron 100 offer good weldability, while SAF 2507 and Ferralium 255 offer even higher corrosion resistance and strength for use in highly corrosive environments. LDX 2101, on the other hand, offers a more cost-effective solution for applications where high strength and good corrosion resistance are required but at a lower cost than super duplex stainless steels.

Super Duplex Zeron 100 Fastener Grades

Zeron 100 is further developed in higher strengths graded FG and FLT versions. Hague Fasteners have extensive experience working with these alloys.

Zeron 100 is a duplex stainless steel that is widely used in a variety of industrial applications. It is an alloy that contains a high percentage of chromium, molybdenum, and nitrogen, which provide it with exceptional corrosion resistance properties. It also has high strength and toughness, making it ideal for use in applications where mechanical stresses are present.

The higher strength graded FG and FLT versions of Zeron 100 are modifications of the standard alloy that have been designed to provide even greater strength and durability. These alloys have higher levels of nickel, nitrogen, and molybdenum, which provide them with even greater corrosion resistance and strength. They also have improved toughness, which is essential in applications where high mechanical stresses are present.

The FG version of Zeron 100 is specifically designed for use in fastener applications. It has been optimized to provide the high strength and corrosion resistance required in these applications. The FLT Grade of Zeron 100, on the other hand, is suitable for use in floating production systems, such as oil and gas platforms. It has been designed to withstand the harsh and corrosive environments found in these applications.

The applications of Zeron 100 and its higher strength grades FG and FLT are extensive. The standard alloy is commonly used in the chemical and petrochemical industries, where it is used in equipment such as pumps, valves, and heat exchangers. Its excellent corrosion resistance properties also make it ideal for use in marine applications, such as seawater desalination plants and offshore structures.

Zeron 100FG is commonly used in fastener applications, such as bolts and screws, where high strength and corrosion resistance are essential. It is also used in oil and gas production equipment, such as valves, pumps, and manifolds.

Zeron 100FLT is commonly used in floating production systems, such as offshore platforms. It is used in a variety of equipment, including risers, connectors, and subsea production systems. Its exceptional corrosion resistance and high strength make it an ideal material for these applications.

Zeron 100 and its modified FG and FLT grades are exceptional alloys that provide excellent corrosion resistance, strength, and toughness. They are widely used in a variety of industrial applications and are particularly useful in aggressive and corrosive environments. We work extensively with these alloys, and we are confident that they will continue to play a vital role in the industrial landscape for many years to come.

Environment and Applications

Duplex and superduplex stainless steels are ideal for use in aggressive environments where conventional stainless steels would fail. These alloys offer excellent resistance to pitting, crevice, and general corrosion, as well as erosion and stress corrosion cracking. Some common applications of duplex and super duplex stainless steels include:

  1. Oil and Gas: Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are widely used in offshore oil and gas production, where they are exposed to highly corrosive environments containing chloride, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide. These alloys offer excellent resistance to corrosion and erosion, making them ideal for use in subsea pipelines, offshore platforms, and other critical components.
  1. Chemical Processing: Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are used in chemical processing plants where they are exposed to highly acidic or alkaline environments, as well as high temperatures and pressures. These alloys offer excellent resistance to corrosion and erosion, making them ideal for use in heat exchangers, reactors, and other critical components.
  2. Desalination: Super duplex stainless steels are commonly used in desalination plants, where they are exposed to highly saline environments containing chloride and other aggressive ions. These alloys offer excellent resistance to corrosion and erosion, making them ideal for use in seawater intake systems, brine concentrators, and other critical components.
  3. Marine: Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are widely used in marine applications, where they are exposed to seawater and other corrosive environments. These alloys offer excellent resistance to corrosion and erosion, making them ideal for use in offshore structures, shipbuilding, and other critical components.

Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are advanced materials that offer superior mechanical, corrosion, and erosion resistance properties over conventional stainless steels. These alloys have a two-phase microstructure consisting of austenite and ferrite phases, resulting in improved strength, toughness, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking. There are several grades of duplex and super duplex stainless steels available, each with different compositions and properties, making them suitable for a range of applications in the oil and gas, chemical, desalination, marine, and other industries. The development of hyper duplex stainless steels represents a new generation of these alloys, offering even higher strength and corrosion resistance properties for use in highly corrosive environments.

Screw Thread and Bolt Protection

Screw Thread Protection for Engineered Components

Thread Protection

One of the most common forms of damage to engineered components is screw thread damage. Screw threads are an integral part of many components, and any damage to them can have far-reaching consequences. In this article, we will detail the problems caused by damaged screw threads in engineered components commonly caused by poor bolt protection during packaging and shipping.

Screw Thread Protection for Engineered Components

Engineered components are crucial in various industries, from automotive to safety-critical Nuclear and Defence installations. These components are designed to perform specific functions with a high degree of precision and reliability. However, when these components are damaged during packaging and shipping, it can cause significant problems.

The Problems Caused by Damaged Screw Threads

The primary function of screw threads is to provide a secure and reliable connection between components. Any damage to the threads can compromise this connection and result in several issues.

Firstly, damaged threads can cause the component to fail prematurely. When the connection between components is not secure, it can cause the assembly to become loose or dislodged, resulting in a malfunction or failure. This can be particularly dangerous in critical applications, where a single component failure can have catastrophic consequences.

Secondly, damaged threads can result in increased maintenance costs. If a component fails prematurely due to damaged threads, it will need to be replaced or repaired. This can result in increased downtime, lost productivity, and increased costs.

Thirdly, damaged threads can result in reduced efficiency. When the connection between components is not secure, it can result in vibrations, which can cause wear and tear on the component. This can result in reduced efficiency and increased energy consumption.

Bolt Protection

The Extra Efforts Hague Fasteners Go To Protecting Threads and Precision Turned Parts

One such method is by wax dipping them to prevent knocks and damage after manufacturing. Wax dipping is a process where the component is dipped into a bath of hot wax to create a protective coating. This coating provides a layer of protection that can prevent damage from knocks and bumps during shipping and handling. It also helps to prevent moisture and other contaminants from penetrating the component, which can cause corrosion or other forms of damage, giving up to 10 years of extended rust prevention in storage.

Wax dipping is an effective and cost-efficient way to protect engineered components, especially threads, during shipping and handling. By taking this extra step, we can ensure that our components are received in perfect condition, ready to perform their intended function with reliability and precision. This protection is far more effective than the Extruded Mesh Sleeves sometimes applied to threaded parts.

Screw Thread and Bolt Protection, Damaged Threads Summary

Damaged screw threads in engineered components can cause significant problems, including premature component failure, increased maintenance costs, and reduced efficiency. That’s why it’s essential to protect components during shipping and handling to prevent damage from occurring. At Hague Fasteners, we go the extra mile to protect our components by wax dipping them to prevent knocks and damage after manufacturing. By doing so, we can ensure that our components are received in perfect condition, ready to perform their intended function with reliability and precision.

Hydrogen Embrittlement

Hydrogen Embrittlement Fasteners

What is Embrittlement

Hydrogen embrittlement is a phenomenon that can occur in fasteners, such as bolts and screws, due to the presence of hydrogen atoms. This process can weaken the structural integrity of the fastener and lead to unexpected failures, which can have serious consequences. In this publication, we will examine the causes and effects of hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners, as well as potential prevention strategies.

Causes

The cause of hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners is the absorption of hydrogen atoms into the metal during manufacturing, processing, or service. Hydrogen can be introduced into the metal through various methods, such as pickling, electroplating, and welding. Once hydrogen atoms are introduced into the metal, they can migrate to areas of high stress concentration, such as the threads or the shank of the fastener. When the hydrogen atoms accumulate in these areas, they can create internal voids or microcracks, which can reduce the ductility and toughness of the metal. As a result, the fastener becomes susceptible to sudden fracture, even under normal loads.

The effect of hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners can be catastrophic, especially in safety-critical applications, such as aerospace, automotive, and construction. The failure of a fastener due to hydrogen embrittlement can lead to equipment malfunction, loss of structural integrity, and even personal injury or loss of life. Moreover, the damage caused by hydrogen embrittlement may not be immediately apparent, as the fastener can fracture without warning after a period of service. This makes it difficult to detect and prevent hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners.

Prevention – Baking

Preventing hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners requires a proactive approach that addresses the sources of hydrogen, the design of the fastener, and the selection of materials and processing methods. One common prevention strategy is to use low-hydrogen processes, such as electroless nickel plating or black oxide coating, that minimize the introduction of hydrogen into the metal. Another approach is to reduce the stress levels in the fastener by using larger diameters, smoother threads, and lower torque values. Additionally, designers can select materials that are less susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, such as high-strength alloys with low hydrogen affinity.

Heat treatment baking is a common process used to prevent hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength fasteners. This process involves heating the fasteners to a specific temperature for a certain amount of time, which allows any hydrogen that has been absorbed by the metal to diffuse out of the material. The baking process is typically performed after the fasteners have been plated or coated with a hydrogen-absorbing material, such as cadmium or zinc.

During the heat treatment baking process, the fasteners are heated in an oven or furnace to a temperature typically ranging from 375 to 450 degrees Celsius (700 to 840 degrees Fahrenheit) for a period of several hours. The specific temperature and duration of the baking process depend on the type of material being used and the amount of hydrogen that needs to be removed.

The heat treatment baking process can be done using either a batch or continuous process. In a batch process, the fasteners are placed in a rack and then loaded into the oven or furnace, while in a continuous process, the fasteners are conveyed through the oven or furnace on a conveyor belt.

One of the advantages of heat treatment baking is that it is a relatively simple and cost-effective process that can be easily integrated into existing manufacturing processes. It is also a proven method for reducing the risk of hydrogen embrittlement in high-strength fasteners.

However, it is important to note that heat treatment baking is not always effective in preventing hydrogen embrittlement, particularly in cases where the fasteners are exposed to high levels of hydrogen during service. In such cases, alternative methods of preventing hydrogen embrittlement, such as the use of alternative materials or coatings, may be necessary. Overall, heat treatment baking is an important process for ensuring the safety and reliability of high-strength fasteners in a wide range of applications, particularly in industries such as aerospace, automotive, and industrial manufacturing.

Prevention – Materials

To help avoid hydrogen embrittlement, there are several materials and superalloys that are less susceptible to this phenomenon. Here are some examples:

    Austenitic stainless steel: Austenitic stainless steel is a non-magnetic alloy that is resistant to corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. It contains high levels of nickel and chromium, which provide excellent mechanical properties and resistance to environmental degradation.

    Titanium alloys: Titanium alloys are known for their high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. They are commonly used in aerospace, medical, and industrial applications.

    Inconel alloys: Inconel alloys are a family of nickel-based superalloys that are known for their high temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. They are commonly used in aerospace, marine, and chemical processing applications.

    Monel alloys: Monel alloys are a family of nickel-copper alloys that are highly resistant to corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. They are commonly used in marine and chemical processing applications.

    Cobalt alloys: Cobalt alloys are a family of high-performance alloys that are known for their high temperature strength, wear resistance, and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. They are commonly used in aerospace, medical, and industrial applications. It’s important to note that selecting the best material or superalloy for a given application depends on various factors, such as the operating conditions, the type of fastener or component, and the cost. Consulting with a materials engineer or a specialist in the field can help identify the best solution for a particular case.

Conclusion

In conclusion, hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners is a serious issue that can compromise the safety and reliability of equipment and structures. The causes of hydrogen embrittlement are multifaceted and can occur at various stages of the fastener’s life cycle. The effects of hydrogen embrittlement can be catastrophic, leading to sudden failure and potential harm to people and property. Prevention of hydrogen embrittlement requires a holistic approach that includes minimizing the introduction of hydrogen, reducing stress levels, and selecting appropriate materials and processes. By following these best practices, engineers and manufacturers can ensure the integrity and longevity of fasteners in critical applications.

Examples of Failures in Fasteners

  • In 2019, a steel beam collapsed at a construction site in Melbourne, Australia, killing one worker and injuring several others. The cause of the collapse was determined to be the failure of a fastener due to hydrogen embrittlement. The fastener had been recently installed and had not been properly heat-treated, which contributed to its susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. (Source: ABC News, “Melbourne worksite collapse: One dead, two critical after scaffolding falls on them,” 23 November 2019)
  • In 2010, a gas pipeline explosion occurred in San Bruno, California, killing eight people and causing significant damage to the surrounding neighborhood. Investigation revealed that the cause of the explosion was a rupture in a pipeline due to hydrogen embrittlement in a weld joint. The fasteners used in the weld joint were found to have absorbed hydrogen during the welding process, which led to their sudden fracture. (Source: National Transportation Safety Board, “Pacific Gas and Electric Company Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Rupture and Fire,” Accident Report NTSB/PAR-11/01)
  • In 2013, a fire broke out in a Boeing 787 Dreamliner parked at Heathrow Airport in London. Investigation revealed that the cause of the fire was a fractured titanium fastener that held the battery casing in place. The fastener had experienced hydrogen embrittlement, which weakened its structure and led to its sudden failure. (Source: Reuters, “Boeing says Dreamliner fire caused by faulty battery,” 20 March 2014)
  • In 2017, a water tank exploded at a chemical plant in Louisiana, killing three workers and injuring several others. The cause of the explosion was determined to be a failed bolt that had experienced hydrogen embrittlement. The bolt had been recently installed and had not been properly heat-treated, which contributed to its susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. (Source: Chemical Safety Board, “CSB releases final report into 2017 fatal incident at the Packaging Corporation of America in DeRidder, Louisiana,” 29 October 2019)
  • In 2017, the U.S. Navy issued a safety bulletin warning of the risk of hydrogen embrittlement in certain types of stainless steel bolts used in shipboard equipment. The bulletin cited several instances of bolt failures due to hydrogen embrittlement, including one incident where a bolt on a high-pressure air compressor failed, causing an explosion and injuries to sailors. (Source: Navy Safety Center, “Hydrogen Embrittlement in Bolts and Screws,” Safety Bulletin 17-01)
  •  In 2019, a bolt failure caused a roller coaster derailment at the Daytona Beach Boardwalk in Florida. The failure was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement, which weakened the bolt and led to its sudden fracture. Two riders were ejected from the coaster and fell 34 feet to the ground, suffering serious injuries. (Source: NBC News, “Roller coaster derailment caused by ‘excessive corrosion’ of support beam, state says,” 17 July 2019)
  • In 2016, the roof of the Allianz Riviera soccer stadium in Nice, France partially collapsed due to the failure of several fasteners. An investigation revealed that the fasteners had experienced hydrogen embrittlement, which weakened their structure and led to their sudden failure. Fortunately, no one was injured in the incident. (Source: The Local France, “Nice stadium roof collapse due to ‘metal fatigue’,” 14 September 2016)
  • In 2018, the roof of the Afsluitdijk road tunnel in the Netherlands partially collapsed, prompting its closure for several months. An investigation revealed that the failure was caused by the corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement of fasteners used to secure the roof panels. The fasteners had been exposed to high levels of saltwater and hydrogen gas, which contributed to their deterioration. (Source: NOS, “Afsluitdijk tunnel closed due to faulty bolts,” 17 January 2018)
  • In 2016, a train derailment occurred in Mosier, Oregon, causing a crude oil spill and fire. Investigation revealed that the cause of the derailment was a broken bolt in the rail joint, which had experienced hydrogen embrittlement. The bolt had been manufactured using a high-strength steel that was susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and had been exposed to hydrogen during service. (Source: Federal Railroad Administration, “Railroad Accident Brief: Union Pacific Railroad Derailment,” Accident Report RAB-16-03)

These examples highlight the serious consequences in fasteners, and underscore the importance of taking preventive measures to minimize the risk of failure.

Plastic Packaging Tax Statement (PPT)

Plastic Packaging Tax

What is the Plastic Packaging Tax (PPT)?

The PPT came into force on the 1st April 2022. It applies to plastic packaging used in products imported into, or manufactured in the UK, that do not contain at least 30% recycled plastic for companies that produce in excess of 10 metric tonnes of plastic packaging per annum.

What is the purpose of the tax?

The aim of the PPT is to encourage businesses to increase the use of recycled material in the production of plastic packaging for products. Demand for recycled material is expected to increase the collection and recycling of waste plastic thus reducing the amount which is landfilled or incinerated. The rate of PPT increases in line with the Consumer Price Index (CPI) as advised by the UK Government.

Hague Fasteners and the Plastic Packaging Tax

The total amount of Plastic Packaging used by Hague Fasteners falls significantly below the PPT threshold.

From the 1st April 2022 Hague Fasteners Limited monitor in scope, out of scope, and exempt packaging on a continual basis to determine any PPT liability.

Hague Fasteners ensure that all Plastic Packaging used within our operation contains 30% recycled plastic, as an absolute minimum, and where possible seeks alternative materials to completely eliminate the use of plastics.

We recognise that we are all in challenging times in terms of global environmental impacts and we all have a part to play in addressing threats to our planet.  Hague Fasteners is fully committed to assessing, understanding and improving its environmental impact and performance.

In the unlikely event that the threshold of 10 tonnes is reached, then as per our obligations, we will register with HMRC as liable to pay PPT on all applicable packaging used within our Company and will then :-.

  • report and with best endeavours complete HMRC tax declarations accurately.
  • Provide evidence for all exemptions and recycled content declarations.
  • carry out due diligence checks to ensure product specifications are and remain accurate.
  • identify, investigate and qualify alternative packaging methods for future targeted packaging improvements.

We monitor in scope, out of scope, and exempt packaging on a continual basis which easily helps us to determine any future PPT liability.

Declaration

Hague Fasteners are exempt from PPT as the total amount of Plastic Packaging used by us falls significantly below the 10 tonnes PPT threshold. Further as a commitment to improving our Environment we strive to eliminate the use of plastic completely from our packaging and where this is not possible commit to ensuring any products used contain at least 30% recycled plastic.

If it is determined that there is a PPT liability at any time in the future, then Hague Fasteners will assume all related PPT liabilities on all applicable packaging.

We confirm that Hague Fasteners customers shall not have any liabilities in respect of PPT on all applicable packaging used within Hague Fasteners products purchased from the company.

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